Today the term the Delhi Sultanate (Wikipedia link) is often used for the dynasties they established. From 1300 AD they spread further down the subcontinent (Eaton 2005, Kulke & Rothermund 2006). It was in this period that Tantra declined in Northern India among the elites. It was also in this period that hatha-yoga emerged as one of many new cults as we saw in previous chapters. Some sociologists, like me, suggest that the emergence of hatha-yoga was related to Muslim threats (Gross 1992, Ghurye 1953). In the previous chapters I suggested that the Turkic Muslim invasion of Northern India meant that Tantric high culture and much of urban elite culture was forced out into the provinces and rural areas – or into the south. Under the Delhi Sultanate, the yoga discourse probably lost much of its elite urban character and its centre of gravity moved to rural low-castes as the Nath jogis. Many of the traditional itinerant groups of the cultural field of liberation disappeared under the social turbulence, military raids and new ruling culture. But in many respects the fundamentally exploitative nature of Indian society did not change character, despite the changes in the military elites; it actually got worse (Asher & Talbot 2006, Eraly 2007).
The following period from 1526 to the end of 1700 witnessed the empire of the Mughals (Mongols) where a more coherent, centralised and bureaucratic state emerged and where more profound social and political-economical changes took place. Let us first look at the cultural impact of the Delhi Sultanate, which must have influenced the yoga discourse.
Moadel, Shah, Wylie-Rosett, Harris, Patel Utthita Hasta Padangusthasan Yoga Posea , Hall et al., 2007. A review of research on the use of yoga in Utthita Hasta Padangusthasan Yoga Posea cancer patients concluded that there is preliminary support for the feasibility and efficacy of yoga interventions for cancer patients, although controlled trials are lacking Bower, Woolery, Sternlieb, & Garet, 2005. In 26 women diagnosed with stage 0, I, II, and III breast cancer BC within the previous five years, mean age 54.2 35-78, a study consisting of pre- and posttest within subject quantitative assessments with a two-week wait list control and postintervention in-depth qualitative assessments demonstrated significant p0. Improvements in quality of life, spiritual well-being, positive states of mind, and perceived stress following an eight-day Art of Living Sudarshan Kriya Yoga SKY Course. Benefits were sustained at five-week follow-up. Subjects reported mind-body-spirit experiences: positive emotions 100% of love, joy, peace, centeredness, and mental clarity.
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