Best Bodyweight Exercises Biceps
Immediate (“explosive”) energy system The system that supplies very short bursts of energy to muscle cells through the breakdown of cellular stores of ATP and creatine phosphate (CP).
Nonoxidative (anaerobic) energy system The system that supplies energy to muscle cells for highly intense exercise of short duration by breaking down muscle stores of glucose and glycogen; called the anaerobic system because chemical reactions take place without oxygen and produce lactic acid.
Anaerobic Occurring in the absence of oxygen.
Lactic acid A metabolic acid resulting from the metabolism of glucose and glycogen. It is broken down in the body into lactate and hydrogen ions as soon as it is produced.
Oxidative (aerobic) energy system The system that supplies energy to cells for long periods of activity through the breakdown of glucose, glycogen, and fats; called the aerobic system because its chemical reactions require oxygen.
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Aerobic Dependent on the presence of oxygen.
Mitochondria Cell structures that convert the energy in food to a form the body can use.
Allows people to do activities at lower intensities. This is an important adaptation because glycogen depletion is one of the limiting factors for the oxidative energy system. By being able to use more fat as fuel, a fit individual can exercise for a longer time before glycogen is depleted and muscles become fatigued. Aerobic exercise and high-intensity interval training increase the number and capacity of mitochondria. Increased mitochondrial capacity is the most important benefit of exercise. Mitochondrial health and fitness are linked to a reduced risk of disease and improved longevity.
Oxygen is another factor limiting exercise capacity. The oxygen requirement of this energy system is proportional to the intensity of exercise. As intensity increases, so does oxygen consumption. The body’s ability to increase oxygen use is limited; this limit, known as maximal oxygen consumption, or VO2 , refers to the highest rate of oxygen
Consumption an individual is capable of during maximum physical effort. It is expressed in milliliters of oxygen per minute per kilogram of body weight per minute. In the symbol, the V stands for volume, the dot over the V means per minute, the O2 stands for oxygen, and the max means maximum. VO2max determines how intensely a person can perform endurance exercise and for how long, and it is considered the best overall measure of the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system. (The assessment tests described later in the chapter are designed to help you evaluate your VO2max.)
The Energy Systems in Combination Your body typically uses all three energy systems when you exercise. The intensity and duration of the activity determine which system predominates. For example, when you play tennis, you use the immediate energy system when hitting the ball, but you replenish cellular energy stores by using the nonoxidative and oxidative systems. When cycling, the oxidative system predominates. However, if you must suddenly exercise intensely by riding up a steep hill, for example the other systems become important because the oxidative system is unable to supply ATP fast enough to sustain high-intensity effort.
Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) The
Highest rate of oxygen consumption an individual is capable of during maximum physical effort, reflecting the body’s ability to transport and use oxygen; measured in milliliters of oxygen used per minute per kilogram of body weight.
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