Best Body Building Exercise At Home
If these are depleted, a person may experience fatigue, dizziness, and impaired judgment. (The brain and nervous system rely on carbohydrates as fuel.) Second, the rapid metabolism caused by this energy system increases hydrogen and potassium ions that interfere with metabolism and muscle contraction and cause fatigue. During heavy exercise, such as sprinting, large increases in hydrogen and potassium ions cause muscles to fatigue rapidly.
The anaerobic energy system also creates metabolic acids. Fortunately, exercise training increases the body’s ability to cope with metabolic acid. Improved fitness allows you to exercise at higher intensities before the abrupt buildup of metabolic acids a point that scientists call the lactate threshold. One metabolic acid, called lactic acid (lactate), is often linked to fatigue during intense exercise. Lactic acid does not last long in blood. It breaks down into lactate and hydrogen ion (acid) as soon as it is produced. Lactate is an important fuel at rest and during exercise.
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The Oxidative Energy System The oxidative (aerobic) energy system operates during any physical activity that lasts longer than about 2 minutes, such as distance running, swimming, hiking, or even just standing in line. The oxidative system requires oxygen to generate ATP, which is why it is considered an aerobic system. The oxidative system cannot produce energy as quickly as the other two systems, but it can supply energy for much longer periods of time. It is the source of our energy during most daily activities.
In the oxidative energy system, ATP production takes place in cellular structures called mitochondria. Because mitochondria can use carbohydrates (glucose and glycogen) or fats to produce ATP, the body’s stores of fuel for this system are much greater than those for the other two energy systems. The actual fuel used depends on the intensity and duration of exercise and on the fitness status of the individual. Carbohydrates are favored during more intense exercise (more than 65% of maximum capacity); fats are used for mild, low-intensity activities. During a prolonged exercise session,
Carbohydrates are the predominant fuel at the start of the workout, but fat utilization increases over time. Fit individuals use a greater proportion of fat as fuel because increased fitness
Stroke volume The amount of blood the heart pumps with each beat.
Cardiac output The volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute via heart rate and stroke volume.
Metabolic rate The rate at which the body uses energy.
Glucose A simple sugar circulating in the blood that can be used by cells to fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production.
Glycogen A complex carbohydrate stored principally in the liver and skeletal muscles; the major fuel source during most forms of intense exercise. Glycogen is the storage form of glucose.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) The energy source for cellular processes.
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