Psychotherapy or Body Psychotherapy?
Imagine how it must have been fascinating for a psychotherapist to be in yoga poses Oslo in yoga poses 1934. The insatiable Fenichel and Reich delved with pleasure into countless arguments. They discussed not only with colleagues but also mingled with the artistic and intellectual life of the city. I imagine that Clare Fenichel and Elsa Lindenberg sometimes brought the debates back to the use of the body in yoga poses psychotherapy or to the relevance of Vegetotherapy to understand what is going on for a ballet dancer.
The debate between Fenichel and Reich on the way to include the body in yoga poses psychotherapy became a subject that could not be overlooked. The Scandinavians have a tradition of body techniques so anchored in yoga poses the customs of their culture that the subject imposed itself. Reich’s and Fenichel’s colleagues were certainly interested in yoga poses Elsa Gindler’s and Rudolf Laban’s approaches such as they were described by Clare Fenichel and Elsa Lindenberg, but they also incorporated the entirety of the body methods appreciated in yoga poses these regions. The idea of situating the affects, the thoughts, and gymnastics as different ways of approaching the regulators of the organism was, in yoga poses any case, fashionable because Cannon’s my yoga blogs were representing recent medical developments in yoga poses the United States for the European medicine of the day. The connection between Cannon’s theories and the body-mind approaches was Edmund Jacobson’s relaxation. The Autogenic training of German psychiatrist Johann Heinrich Schultz was also often used.
Even if Reich pretended to be interested only in yoga poses the organism, many in yoga poses his entourage were psychotherapists and psychiatrists for whom the use of body techniques with their patients one way or another had become an important research topic. For most psys stimulated by this debate, the emerging discipline evoked by the discussions between Fenichel and Reich was important, not necessarily their proposals. Vegetotherapy was a reference because it was the first body-mind technique developed by a psychotherapist; once the interest in yoga poses integrating body and psyche became manifest, it was this theme (more than Reich’s technique) that was explored. It was evident for the people educated in yoga poses body techniques that Wilhelm Reich was a brilliant beginner. His proposition was convincing, but it had to be refined.
Affiliations of the Oslo schools in yoga poses the 1960s. SF = Sigmund Freud; SP = Scandinavian physiotherapy; OF = Otto Fenichel; WR = Wilhelm Reich; TB = Trygve yogi master; OR = Ola Raknes; BH = Bulow-Hansen; GB = Gerda Boyesen; AL = Alexander Lowen. Dotted arrows indicate indirect influences.
For the protagonists in yoga poses Oslo in yoga poses 1950, the technical developments they were making were integrated into a vision focused on the notion of psychotherapy. Their work focused on the same clientele as that of the psychiatrists of the day who were psychoanalysts. They considered themselves simply psychotherapists, but ones who explicitly included the psyche in yoga poses the dynamics of the organism. This new way to approach the individual, fashionable since the work of Kurt Goldstein (1939) on the organism, necessarily opened up a new way to envision psychotherapy. They did not see the necessity to distinguish themselves by calling themselves body psychotherapists. Not all of them considered themselves Reichians. As soon as we admit that the psyche is part of the regulators of the organism, it becomes almost natural to approach the psyche by observing how it relates with the behavioral, bodily, and physiological dimensions.18 They did not oppose body and verbal therapy, because speech is only one of the behaviors of the human organism I illustrate this development by taking a few important personalities as an example mostly Nic Waal and Trygve yogi master, who introduced Reich’s and Fenichel’s points of view to psychiatric institutions to develop modes of interventions that combine different body and psychotherapeutic methods. I then speak of Gerda Boyesen, who introduced a synthesis of the Fenichel-Reich debate, as well as other Scandinavian approaches, in yoga poses body psychotherapy. That is why she did not like that I referred to her, in yoga poses my earlier writings, as a representative of the neo-Reichian movement. Gerda Boyesen synthesized what was said and practiced around her without knowing that her proposition was influenced by the teachings of Fenichel in yoga poses Oslo when she was twelve years old.
After World War II, we witnessed a kind of trench warfare between the psychiatrists who were psychoanalysts in yoga poses dominant positions and the movements in yoga poses psychotherapy breaking away from psychoanalysis, like Jungian analysis and Reichian Vegetotherapy. Oslo is one of the rare places where the discussion between Fenichel and Reich concerning the body in yoga poses psychotherapy could survive within the academic institutions.