The Brahmins specialised in maintaining and performing the fire ritual central to the coherence of the Vedic Archaic society. That put them in a powerful position. By performing the ritual they would also be tapasised – i.e. heated up. This meant that they eliminated pollution, became purified and god-like: pure tapas (Kaelber 1989, Smith 1985). As the Brahmins became tapasised – semi-divine – they would accordingly know the cosmos – which was brahman. In sociological terms they had become a high status group rich in symbolic capital. All groups involved in tapas discourse and practice conditioned and enhanced their symbolic capital in relation to the rest of Vedic society. We see that inherent in tapas – an Indian variant of asceticism – there is the taken-for-given-assumption that asceticism can turn a human being into something very powerful – a kind of semi-divine creature.
The Brahmin tapas discourse has led many to claim that yoga evolved directly out of the Vedic culture. The reason for this is obvious. Often we can see in the Brahmin texts that yoga ‘ and tapas ‘ are actually synonymous. Yoga is just a specific variety of tapas. So many conclude that yoga must have its roots in Vedic culture and the tapas discourse. Hence yoga is Brahmin practice, they conclude.
Bipolar patients being treated on lithium alone should not undertake yoga Yoga poses for weight loss for beginners with pictures breath training. Patients on lithium in combination with other mood stabilizers who begin yoga practices should Yoga poses for weight loss for beginners with pictures have lithium levels monitored and adjusted if necessary. Severe Character Disorders, Such as Borderline Personality Severely character disordered patients may not be suitable for the group setting, particularly if there is a history of self-injury, suicide attempts, or manipulative behavior.
Such patients should be in a stable, ongoing psychotherapy program before undertaking yoga training. Individual instruction in calming practices such as gentle yoga postures, coherent breathing, Ujjayi, or alternate nostril breathing may be helpful. Psychosis Psychosis is a general contraindication for yoga breathing. Psychotic patients may overuse rapid breath techniques to induce altered states of consciousness. Some schizophrenic patients benefit from gentle basic Ujjayi, alternate nostril breathing, and gentle yoga postures see Chapter 7.