Daily practices and regular sessions with an instructor are necessary to Yoga poses vrksasana maintain the benefits. Yoga Breathing: Sudarshan Kriya Yoga Several studies suggest antidepressant effects with a Yoga poses vrksasana yoga breath practice called Sudarshan Kriya Yoga SKY. In Chapter 3, SKY is described in greater detail. Briefly, SKY includes five breath practices victorious breath or Ujjayi, bellows breath or Bhastrika, AUM, Sudarshan Kriya or cyclical breathing, and alternate nostril breathing. Courses also teach yoga postures, meditation, relaxation, some yoga philosophy, and psychoeducation in stress reduction. A small pilot study used SKY breathing Ujjayi, Bhastrika, and Sudarshan Kriya to treat 30 patients 15 with dysthymia a disorder that is somewhat less severe but more chronic than major depression and 15 with major depression. The researchers found that SKY significantly improved symptoms of depression in all 30 participants Naga Venkatesha Murthy, Janakiramaiah, Gangadhar, & Subbakrishna, 1998. In a larger three-month follow-up study, 46 outpatients with dysthymia were taught SKY breathing and then instructed to practice every day at home.
The only example of a historical social group labelling itself Yogi’, is the medieval Nath jogis. Their descendants are still found in India. It is interesting in our context that there are ethnographic works studying the lives of contemporary Nath jogis. The Naths could be described as a rural based jati – a caste or community. Today the Naths often live a normal family life, living from livestock for instance, or as shopkeepers. This is called a householder’ as in opposition to an ascetic mendicant life’. We often tend to connect yoga with ascetic itinerants but maybe the main groups practising yoga were householders of the elites.
In any case among the Nath jogis we find many Yogi householders and we see that most of their time is not spent in meditation and striving for liberation. The householder Nath jogi can in many ways be seen as a folk’ competitor to the Brahmin householder offering similar services. According to the Nath jogi experts Gold and Gold:
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