We ask patients to bring to the office all of the Yoga poses jewelry vitamins and supplements they are taking and we keep a magnifying glass handy for reading the fine Yoga poses jewelry print. Obtaining previous treatment records and knowing what substances your patient has been ingesting are essential in working through the differential diagnosis. INTRODUCING CAM The patient’s level of interest in or resistance to CAM is an important consideration in the treatment plan. Take time to explain the pros and cons of standard and alternative treatments pertinent to the symptoms.
When the client absolutely favors prescription medication and maintains a completely negative attitude toward CAM, it makes sense to start with prescription drugs if they are appropriate. If the response to medication is robust with few side effects, then Cam may not be necessary. However, if after doing appropriate medication trials the patient is only 50% or 75% improved or if there are troublesome side effects, it may be time to reopen the CAM discussion. By this time, the patient has learned from experience the limitations of prescription medication and is probably more willing to try alternative approaches.
Everywhere in Asia the Buddhist discourse ran through exactly the same processes of protestantisation: reforming and cleaning up the mystical and the ritual in order to return to the original, rational and classical (Borup 2008).
Before 1900 AD the main target was to build a nation as such and from about 1920 the Hindu aspect of nation building became central witnessed by the emergence of a range of specific Hindu organisations like the founding of the Hindu Mahasabha in 1915 and the RSS in 1925 – see Metcalf (2002) and Ram-Prasad (2005).
See Grieves & Weiss (2005b) for discussions of how traditions are not just habits but also contemporary inventions and re-configurations. It is maintained that religious traditions often are social projects deliberately constructed to serve present ideological ends.
This idea is still widespread. It seems that many contemporary yoga scholars and yoga popularisers – often very critical of Western modernity – have become entangled in this discourse of proving that East is better and more ancient than West.
See Oman’s (1905) ethnographic study: most Sadhus around 1900 were members of monastic orders, which in fact were filled with an illiterate Lumpenproletariat. One abbot complained that only one in hundred were Sadhus – the rest were scum.
Another source widely read by contemporaries was P. Brunton: A Search in secret India (1934) – an esoteric and romantic journalist’s meeting with yogis – some practising yoga of body control’. It seems to consist of 30 different asanas held for prolonged periods of time. Their serious, but secret practice, was however pranayama. These yogis were hard to find – most yogis Brunton met were impostors and impoverished drifters and tramps.
Bernard probably never received the training he claimed, but it was rather his father who received it whilst travelling in India a decade earlier (Syman 2010)
According to Brekke (2002) Vivekananda turned yoga and Hinduism from a collective and communal event in which a person participated, into an individual internal experience, a change identical to the Protestantism of Luther and Calvin. Protestant Hinduism and yoga’, we could call this. Piety and internalisation were required in protestant Hindu private life from now on – it was not sufficient to participate in prescribed collective rituals. Buddhism went through exactly the same process of revitalisation as Protestantism – see Bond (1988) and Eckel (2000).
These 84 asanas are today very influential and influenced the Bikram style yoga.
See for instance Bender Birch (2004).
The following pages introduce the people who mainly influenced popular postural yoga in India from the 1920’s and who after WW2 influenced the West. There are countless other tiny groupings of followers of an Indian Guru (or a westerner who has studied different forms of yoga in India and now promotes it by writing books, making classes and retreats) who influenced modern postural yoga. For instance there was Kundalini yoga, which apparently was brought to Los Angeles in 1969 by the Sikh yogi Bhajan. Kundalini yoga, a dynamic and ecstatic yoga, also has a strong following today, maybe 1 million.
Most often the hatha-yoga ideas have to be incorporated to make any sense of practice- see for instance Smith (2008)
An analysis of Iyengar is found in De Michelis (2004).