Huge expensive armies were necessary to secure power and the dynasty or Empire required administration, legislation and power sharing if local elites were to stay integrated. Not many of the dynasties between the Empires lasted for more than two to three generations. Indian society struggled to produce and maintain long lasting Empires like China and Rome.
The sovereign found himself in the new situation of ruling over different people and cultures. His people could worship different ancestors and local gods; did not share the same mores and habits; spoke different languages etc.. They had little in common to provide them with a foundation for a joint identity. It was a huge challenge to find organisational ways to keep such diverse cultures from constantly fragmenting. However a new religio-ideological discourse evolved supporting the power of the king in this process (Yoffee 2005, Trigger 2007, Bellah 2011).
Hellenistic, Chinese and Persian political culture had for some time constructed the king as a god. During this period – facilitated by the new foreign rulers – this perception finds its way into Indian politics. For instance around 100 BC the king of the Sakas acquired the Persian title of Over-king of kings’ (rajatiraja) and the Kusanas add the title Son of God’ (devaputra). After the Roman Emperor Trajan in 117AD had conquered the Parthians – the main enemy of the Kusanas – we see the Kusana King adopting the Roman title Kaisara (Kulke & Rothermund 2006). Thus the Indian king increasingly became constructed as a god, as living dharma: the king as an embodiment of the law of the universe (Michaels: 2004; Inden 1985). This process culminated over time in the notion that the realm of the king was the king. His prosperity was the prosperity of everybody living under his rule. This also carried the implication that as a god on earth the king’s life and the court became one continuous ritual. The king soon became the builder and patron of temples of the gods, of which he was one (Thapar 2002). Often the king’s court and the temple were the same. As the king became not only the centre of the universe but actually was an expression of it, everybody had to relate in one way or another to the king or risk danger! We shall see that this also became true for the cultural field of liberation and yoga, which had to adapt to this environment.
By week 10, depression improved significantly. They were instructed Yoga poses at home to continue practicing resonant breathing 20 minutes twice a day. At the three-month follow Yoga poses at home -up the women showed significant improvements in depression, pain, and functioning Hassett, Radvanski, Vaschillo, Vaschillo, Sigal et al., 2007. External Qigong Therapy A pilot study of 10 FMS patients were given five to seven external Qigong therapy EQT sessions of about 40 minutes each over a three-week period with testing at baseline, three weeks, and three months. The mean Tender Point Count TPC was reduced from 136.6 to 59.5, the mean McGill Pain Questionnaire MPQ from 27 to 7.
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