Is a Lesion in yoga poses the Brain the Direct Cause of Behavioral Disorders?
The theory of cerebral localization has its point of departure from the observation that when a region of the brain is destroyed, a behavior ceases to exist. Even if no one denies this statement, there have been extensive debates on the ways to explain this observation. Traditionally, neurologists estimated that the region that correlates with the disappearance of a behavior is the site that controls this behavior. in yoga poses the 1930s, several neurologists criticized this linear way of thinking. For example Kurt Goldstein (in Germany) found it more efficient to use a holistic systemic approach, and Alexander Luria (in the Soviet Union) found some advantages in yoga poses being forced to justify his argumentations in yoga poses a Marxist dialectical language. For them, observing that a mechanism necessarily passes through a zone of the brain does not mean that this zone of the brain organizes this mechanism.112 For example, the fact that a lesion in yoga poses Broca’s area (often called the language area of the brain) creates language problems (like aphasia) does not mean that the organization of the ability to speak is situated in yoga poses this area of the brain.
This critique of the theory of cerebral localization is again found in yoga poses Cannon’s school. His student, Edmund Jacobson (1967)113 prefers to situate the material foundation of a behavior in yoga poses the circuits that link several zones: circuits that are situated in yoga poses the brain (central nervous system) and at the periphery of the body (peripheral nervous system). Even though Jacobson had not studied language, he could have thought that the physiological circuits that make it possible for language to exist pass not only through the regions of Broca and Wernicke but also through the peripheral nerves that allow for the fine motor coordination of the vocal cords. Jacobson was looking for neurological models that could help him explain the impact of relaxation techniques. Closer to Cannon than to Goldstein and Luria, he nevertheless used a systemic model that also criticized linear causal models. He summarized his views on the matter with the following metaphor:
Vignette on the metaphor of the central office that manages the exchange between telephones in yoga poses a region. You pick up the phone, and dial a friend’s number. The central switchboard answers that it is broken, and consequently, it cannot connect you to your friend. in yoga poses this example, there is a dysfunction in yoga poses the switchboard (associated to a region of the brain) that prevents you from speaking to your friend (a behavior associated to a peripheral action of the organism). Are we able to deduce from this analysis that the switchboard decides when your friend picks up the telephone?
We know that thoughts are often activated by the dynamics of our organism, but this does not mean that a particular area of the brain is the only one responsible for what emerges in yoga poses our consciousness. For Jacobson, the brain is mostly a translator, a transformer that coordinates the dimensions of the organism and knows how to translate a mental operation into an operation that another dimension can activate. Thus, the representation of a gesture is translated into sensorimotor instructions that make it possible to activate an appropriate gesture. According to Jacobson, a propensity is organized like an electric circuit. Any device that is connected to the circuit can influence the rest of the circuit or even blow the fuses. The fuse box is a central location with regard to the circuit because I can use it to disconnect the whole circuit. Thus, there are zones in yoga poses a circuit that can activate it or disconnect it, but that does not mean that these zones control everything that is going on in yoga poses the other parts of the circuit. These zones have a function close to the notion of a servomechanism used by Laborit. I now describe a few examples of nerve centers that are used as a servomechanism for an affective circuit.
The Biological Roots of the Sensation of Pleasure and Addiction
While Selye and Laborit sought to find the chemical servomechanisms of stress, other researchers were looking to localize other servomechanisms situated in yoga poses the brain. James Old (Montreal), Rudolf Hess (Zurich), and Jose Manual Rodriguez Delgado (United States) are among those. They were exploring ways of using the new technologies that facilitated the implantation of an electrode in yoga poses a specific zone of the brain to see what would happen when that zone was stimulated. These researchers concentrated on the limbic system, which was then reputed to be the center of emotions.