These findings are consistent with pilot studies showing increased EEG coherence Yoga poses for chakra 4 with SKY Bhatia, Kumar, Kumar, Pandey, & Kochupillai, 2003; Shnayder, Yoga poses for chakra 4 Agarkova, Liouliakina, Naumova, & Shnayer, 2006. The daily practice of SKY appears to increase coherence and high-amplitude synchrony Larsen et al. Increases in high-amplitude gamma synchrony were observed in long-term meditating Tibetan Buddhist monks Lutz, Greischar, Rawlings, Ricard, & Davidson, 2004, and have been associated with improved cognitive functioning Mizuhara, Wang, Kobayashi, & Yamaguchi, 2005, memory, long-term coding of information Guderian & Duzel, 2005, and neuroplasticity.
Lazar and colleagues 2005 documented increased cortical thickening in brain regions associated with attention, interoception, and sensory processing including the prefrontal cortex and right anterior insula in long-term meditators compared with age-matched controls.
Dissociation, Splitting, and Long-Range Synchrony Dissociation as occurs in patients with PTSD could reflect dysfunction in the processes necessary for integration of the components of emotion schemas accumulated impressions and fragments of trauma-related experiences and relationships with encoded information from other experiences preceding the traumas, concurrent with the traumas, and occurring after the traumas.
One could view splitting as in borderline personality disorders as an inability to integrate positive and negative emotion schemas internal representations. Disturbances of long-range synchrony may also contribute to disconnection syndromes Hummel & Gerloff, 2005. If emotional disconnection and dissociation involve analogous problems in long-range synchrony and integration, then interventions such as yoga breathing and meditation that enhance coherence and synchrony may be efficacious see Case 5.