For example, some CAM products and medications used in other Yoga poses in bed countries can only be purchased by a licensed physician. In such cases, the physician may Yoga poses in bed have to purchase and resell the product to patients. To prevent any compromise of ethics, we advise selling such products at cost without profit. This may seem a bit austere, but the unconscious is a greedy beast that can subvert clinical judgment.
Even when the practitioner’s decision to prescribe a CAM product is not influenced by profit, if the practitioner benefits financially from the sale of that product, the patient’s trust may be undermined by the appearance of a conflict of interest. Accepting customary lecture fees is also within the bounds of ethical practice. It is best to apply the same ethical standards to CAM that you would use with prescription medications. LIABILITY ISSUES Fear of malpractice liability prevents many practitioners from integrating CAM into their work.
The term ‘Axial Age’ was coined in 1949 by the existential philosopher K. Jaspers and further developed as a comparative sociological notion by S.N. Eisenstadt. Often its use is restricted to the cultural sphere. It here signifies among other things what the sociologist Bellah (2011) calls the advent of ‘thinking about thinking’ – abstract thinking or meta-thinking. It took place among new strata of often itinerant intellectuals, who criticised prevailing conditions and circumstances. I primarily use this term in order to highlight the underlying and general process of civilisation. It was civilisation as such which conditioned this breakthrough of human ability to think about thinking: All these civilizations display literacy, a complex political organization combining central government and local authorities, elaborate town-planning, advanced metal technology and the practice of international diplomacy. In all these civilizations there is a profound tension between political powers and intellectual movements. Everywhere one notices attempts to introduce greater purity, greater justice, greater perfection and more universal explanation of things (A. Momiglisno: Alien Wisdom p. 9). In other words I use the notion Axial Age’ as suggested by Jan Assmann (2012) as an analytical tool. Thus the notion Axial Age civilisation’ forces us to lift our view from the local and to look for comparative explanations among more abstract sociological and evolutionary categories. For further discussions on Axial Age, see Bellah and Joas (ed) (2012).
Some historical introductions to ancient India: Witzel (2003), Michaels :(2004), Samuel (2008), Thapar (2002).
See Quigley (1993) and Michaels (2004), Samuel (2008) and Desika Char (1993) for accounts of the caste system. For a critical analysis of the caste concept see Dirks (2001).
For a socio-historical view see Thapar (1995, 2000, 2002), Inden (2006).
The ritual and the Brahmins went through dramatic changes over time – see R. Eaton (1993) who also gives a good overview of R. Inden’s research on this topic.
For details of urbanisation and the transformation into petty states see for instance Erdosy (1988), Allchin (1995), Gat (2008), Greaeber (2011) and Thapar (1990, 2002). Some scholars claim that the Upanishads – as they do not mention towns and trade -actually precede urbanisation. Bronkhorst (2007) argues that the Upanishads ignore urbanisation.
White (2009) traces a different early meaning of yoga. It is in relation to the notion yoga-yukta. This notion is related to a dying warrior who lashes himself to his chariot so his soul can go to heaven and penetrate the disc of the sun.
The sociologist R. Collins (1998) for instance in his comprehensive sociological history of intellectuals treats the groups where yoga was emerging – the Sramanas and the Brahmins – as intellectuals practising philosophy. For a comparison between ancient Indian and Greek philosophy and society see Obeyesekere 2002.
See Seaford (2004) who in the case of Greece shows a close connection between the surfacing of the financial institution and abstract philosophical thinking. For further, see also Bellah (2011).
There was an extensive contact between Greek and Indian intellectuals, see A. Kuzminski: Pyrrhonism – How the Ancient Greeks reinvented Buddhism (2010), D. Vassiliades: The Greeks in India (2000) and McEville (2002)
All the quotations from Megasthenes in this module are from J.W. McCringle: Ancient India as described by Megasthenes (1877, new ed. 1926).
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