Psychosomatics and Orgonomy
The body, that complicated machine, carries out the most complex and refined motor activities under the influence of such psychological phenomena as ideas and wishes. The most specifically human of all bodily functions, speech, is nothing but the expression of ideas through a refined musical instrument, the vocal apparatus. All our emotions we express through physiological processes; sorrow, by weeping; amusement, by laughter; and shame, by blushing. All emotions are accompanied by physiological changes: fear by palpitation of the heart; anger by increased heart activity, elevation of blood pressure and changes in yoga poses carbohydrate metabolism; despair by a deep inspiration and expiration called sighing. All these physiological phenomena are the results of complex muscular interaction under the influence of nervous impulses, carried to the expressive muscles of the face and to the diaphragm in yoga poses laughter, to the lacrimal glands in yoga poses weeping, to the heart in yoga poses fear, and to the adrenal glands and to the vascular system in yoga poses rage. The nervous impulses arise in yoga poses certain emotional situations which in yoga poses turn originate from our interaction with other people. The originating psychological situations can only be understood as total responses of the organism to its environment. (Franz Alexander, 1950, Psychosomatic Medicine, pp. 38-39)
Vienna was invaded by the Nazis in yoga poses 1938. The totalitarian fascists and communists dominated almost all of Europe. Obliged to leave Europe (only England and Switzerland were still able to resist), the first psychoanalysts were dispersed across other continents. Most of the members of the Berlin institute immigrated to the United States. This country was so immense that they lived relatively far from one another. They only saw each other at the occasion of reunions and at congresses, which changed their relationships as friends to mostly that of colleagues. The competition between them became more evident. The spread of the movement increased after Freud’s death in yoga poses 1939. Everyone was free to define what Freud would have thought or what psychoanalysis ought to become. Several members of the Berlin group continued to reflect on the connection between mental treatment, somatic treatment, and treatment via the body. in yoga poses spite of the differences on the plane of psychoanalytic theory that was crystallizing, the interest in yoga poses the body remained as a link from the past, as a memory of friendship and camaraderie.
Thus, Franz Alexander (in Chicago) and Sandor Rado (in New York)1 tried to integrate the works of Walter Cannon2 to be able to propose a psychosomatics of psychoanalytic inspiration.3 Otto Fenichel established himself in yoga poses Los Angeles in yoga poses 1938. He reconnected with colleagues like Ernst Simmel and Hanna Heilborn, whom he eventually married.4 Fenichel (1945a, 1945b) vaguely felt that Alexander’s psychosomatics was not going in yoga poses the right direction because he was remaining too loyal to the classical psychoanalytic view of a psyche that influenced physiology while symbolizing it. Alexander and Rado seemed to underestimate the impact of physiology on the psyche.5 Fenichel felt that psychoanalysis could and ought to maintain its rigor, but it also ought to integrate the innovations of psychophysiology and the body-focused approaches.
Alexander’s and Rado’s formulations were, for Reich, pale copies of his theory, which they would have imported from Berlin. Erich Fromm maintained his contact with some of Elsa Gindler’s students, such as Charlotte Selver and Clare Fenichel. Laura and Fritz Perls, who were in yoga poses South Africa during the war, first reunited with Selver in yoga poses New York and then in yoga poses California to create what became Gestalt therapy and the mix of psychotherapeutic and body approaches that characterized the activities of the center they established in yoga poses Esalen. in yoga poses all of these movements, the body is often solicited while remaining only a chapter in yoga poses the repertoire of techniques in yoga poses psychotherapy.
For Otto Fenichel, the following issues were crucial for the survival of psychoanalysis:
1. Help psychoanalysis survive after the death of Freud. This consisted of preserving a vision, a technique, and a mode of inquiry. Fenichel’s contribution was to have rendered as explicit as possible the principles of psychoanalytic technique.
2. The market of patients traumatized by war. We have seen that this therapeutic business opened up on a grand scale at the occasion of World War I. Thanks to this impetus, psychoanalysis took hold of numerous psychiatric institutions. World War II restored importance to this market, which developed still more with the wars undertaken by the United States in yoga poses the Far-East and in yoga poses the some Arab nations.
There are two powerful forces behind this second field of interest. The most important is that medicine intends to treat all the ills on the planet. Second, but nonetheless influential, is the idea set forth by Freud that trauma could and ought to be treated by psychoanalysts. Already at the time of World War II, a ferocious competition existed between two camps.
Cannon’s psychophysiological position was on the way to making spectacular advances. This was especially due to the works of another Viennese: Hans Selye.6 The psychophysiological theory of stress was in yoga poses the process of being formulated. It postulates a profound interaction between behavior and mind that is regulated by neurological circuits and hormones. To the extent that, for Selye, the pertinent mental factors are mostly cognitive, this approach forges an alliance with the cognitive therapies7 to manage the mental factors of stress. This trend was followed closely by the introduction of medications that have an effect on the mind as early as 1951 by Henri Laborit and his colleagues.8
Given the importance taken on by this trend, Fenichel was not surprised to see all of these psychoanalysts congregated around Cannon’s theory like bees around a jar of honey. Fenichel clearly saw that they did not understand what was at stake and they did not really grasp the implications of the psychophysiological approach of the time for psychoanalysis. Reich did not take a position in yoga poses this competition. His options were not compatible in yoga poses an institutional enterprise.