In order to achieve this, Indian and Western body builders and athletes drew on exercise regimes developed in Europe during the 19 Century. They drew on the German (employing tools like bars and trapezes) and Swedish (using the body as resistance combined with stretching) gymnastic discourses, as deveoped by F.L. Jahn and P.H. Ling. They also incorporated callisthenic exercises which had their origin back in Greco-Roman military training: lunges, jumping jack, crunches, push-ups, and squats. From their manuals with drawings and photos we can see that many of the stretching poses and the movements combining these poses were identical to what we today call asana-yoga exercises – but which never appeared in hatha-yoga texts.
Most contemporary yoga practitioners will immediately recognise the exercises of these Western manuals as certainly asana and vinyasas. In the chapters on modernist yoga we see it is in this hybrid culture that we find the roots of modern asana driven yoga – not in the hatha-yoga discourse.
With the arrival of modernist culture and institutions this chapter comes to an end. So far, we have mapped some of the genealogy of modernist asana discourse. We can confirm that it does not have its roots in the written hatha-yoga discourse, but is to be found in institutions outside hatha-yoga.
Like a bowstring, the plantar fascia puts the foot under Yoga inspiration tension that bends the middle of its underside upward, maintaining the longitudinal arch of the foot Yoga inspiration . Plantar fasciitis Painful inflammation of the insertion of the plantar fascia into the calcaneus, also known as heel spur. pontine Related to the pons, part of the brain that integrates motor and sensory signals between the spinal cord and higher brain regions such as the cerebral cortex. posterior In the rear. prepatellar bursitis See bursitis. protraction Movement of the scapulae shoulder blades forward, toward the ventral, or navel-bearing side of the body. In human anatomy, it is nearly equivalent to abducting them, that is, bringing them away from the spine. proximal Closer to the point of reference or axis.