Is there a yoga asana tradition?
Over a period of400 years – from 1400 to 1800 – we can only recover very few treatises on hatha-yoga and asanas, according to Buhnemann, who researched the history of asana. The early hatha-yoga texts taught very few and mainly meditative-style sitting-poses: Goraksa-sakata (2 meditation asanas), Hatha Yoga Pradipika (16 asanas), Shiva-samhita (4 asanas – although it postulated that endless numbers did exist). It is firstly when we look deeply into the era of the Mughal Empire that the number of asanas instructed increased and secondly that some of them started to look like the strenuous asanas known and practised today.
Examples of these texts were the late 17 century Hatha-ratnavali (instructing 36 asanas, but mentioning 84), the 17-18 century Gheranda-samhita (33 asanas – some advanced) and the Joga-pradipika (84 asanas – many advanced) from 1737. So, during the era of the Mughal Empire, it seems that asanas slightly increased in numbers and complexities. But asanas continued to have a minor overall function and without any of today’s primacy and complexity. There were no signs of the standing poses and sun-salutations which dominate modern practice.
Chondrocytes Cells that secrete the fibers that constitute cartilage. chondromalacia Yoga gear patellae Softening of the cartilage of the kneecap. Because the knee is an elliptical joint involving Yoga gear three bones, the back of the kneecap is cut with fine facets, almost like a precious jewel, so that it fits properly over the joint between the tibia and the femur at all angles. Malalignment in the knee, which then contributes to degenerative changes in the cartilage, can cause pain. Also known as runner’s knee, it is more common in women, with onset usually before age forty. coccygodynia Pain in the region of the coccyx, frequently due to a fracture or dislocation at the sacrococcygeal junction, itself often the result of trauma such as a fall. collagen A component of connective tissue that is pervasive throughout the body. It is a triple helix of three long protein chains that wrap around one another.
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