Upward Facing Two-Foot Staff Yoga Pose

The Sramanas and Kshatriyas were socially and culturally closely linked despite their differences. From the texts we can see that many people from the ruling elites – even kings and Brahmins – often at later stages of life joined the ascetic vagrant lifestyles of the Sramanas (Chatterji 2007). These retiring Kshatriyas and elite-drop-outs might have brought their new yoga ideas and practices with them. If they joined strongly organised professional groups, like the Jains and the Buddhists, they would have adopted the monks’ teachings and vocabulary (like the Buddhist dharma) and hence dropped the word yoga. But if they for various reasons rejected the lifestyles and philosophies of the monks, then they might have joined other loosely organised groups of retired upper classes. In such milieus they would have been able to bring their yoga and liberation discourses with them – like the ideas, which would later become Samkhya philosophy. Some of these milieus might even have managed to become professional groups of death consultants. The later Yoga Sutra might represent such fragmented strata of loosely organised urban elites and rulers.

Due to its loose structure such a mixed milieu of householders and vagrants – some professionals, some amateurs – would not have produced many lasting oral traditions (later to be turned into written texts) as did the more strongly organised monastic groups. But maybe there is one text source for this stratum? Maybe it became the unintended task of the Mahabharata – written by Brahmins for the royal courts and upper classes – to document the discourse developments in this mixed upper class stratum, which did not want to join the heterodox Buddhists and Jains? It is a probable hypothesis because in the Mahabharata we encounter numerous varieties of yoga and liberation discourse strongly influenced by diverse Sramanic discourses.

The last of the three groups, the Brahmins – under pressure from Sramanas and in interaction with the ruling Kshatriya classes – adapted or co-developed the yoga discourse reluctantly. Yoga became orientated with Gnostic mysticism and became included in their cultural capital. In this cultural field of ritual specialists however the yoga ideas spread much more slowly. The Upanishads and the Dharma-sutras reflected how liberation discourses were gradually adapted and reconstructed. However austerities – tapas – were also embraced and integrated in Brahmin rituals and lifestyles. In the end this made the renouncing Brahmin difficult to distinguish from the Sramana vagrant.

And increasing to a maximum of 750 mg/day as Upward Facing Two-Foot Staff Yoga Poseneeded in divided doses a.m. and midday. If the patient improves but has Upward Facing Two-Foot Staff Yoga Poseresidual fatigue or cognitive impairment, E. senticosus is started at 500 mg b.i.d.

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