This is not what I am referring to when I speak of an exploration of the inside of a movement. These very precise “awareness exercises” in yoga poses Gestalt therapy allowed many people to sharpen their contact with body sensations, first through suggestions, then in yoga poses a more refined and precise manner. Selver influenced many body psychotherapists like Judith E. Weaver and Malcolm Brown. Brown was the first to have developed a form of body psychotherapy that is explicitly organismic. His school, founded in yoga poses 1977, is called Organismic psychotherapy.163
Another student of Gindler was Laura Posener, who married Fritz Perls. Laura Perls was one of these women of this generation who were less well known than the man she married and inspired but who is probably at least as competent. She was part of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute in yoga poses the 1930s. She was in yoga poses supervision with Otto Fenichel, while Fritz Perls went to Reich for his psychotherapy.164 Fritz trained in yoga poses psychiatry under Kurt Goldstein in yoga poses Frankfort. Laura studied phenomenology in yoga poses Frankfort. She also studied with Gindler.165 Fritz and Laura both completed training in yoga poses Gestalt psychology. The synthesis of Gestalt psychology and phenomenology, which is at the heart of Gestalt therapy, combines the knowledge of Laura and Fritz Perls. Laura and Fritz Perls left Germany for South Africa after Hitler’s election in yoga poses 1933.
I have taken Esalen as a point of reference, but the influence of Gestalt therapy and Gindler’s students developed in yoga poses many different parts of the United States. Thus, after her divorce from Otto Fenichel, Clare Fenichel taught mostly in yoga poses New York. in yoga poses what follows, we will see that henceforth there will be two types of body psychotherapy:
1. A combination between a psychotherapy treatment and bodywork carried out by a team This is the Fenichel/Gindler solution, which was often adopted, for example, in yoga poses Esalen.
2. A method where body and psychological processes are combined by a single therapist, with a psychotherapeutic aim This is the solution adopted after World War II by neo-Reichian body psychotherapists like David Boadella, Malcolm Brown, and Alexander Lowen. We also find this option in yoga poses some movements that were not influenced by Reich, like the Ajuriaguerra relaxation.166
Other schools oscillate between these two possibilities, like the Biodynamic psychology of Gerda Boyesen, who was explicitly influenced by the two movements. I was trained in yoga poses this third movement.
The Organismic Approach of Wilhelm Reich and the Systemic Psychosomatics of Otto Fenichel
In the following sections, dedicated to Reich’s Scandinavian period, I am going to situate the first of his organismic approaches: Vegetotherapy.