Northern India under foreign influence
A few words about the period between the Empires. The 500 years (200 BC – 300 AD) between the Maurya and the Gupta Empires was a period when Northwest India was heavily influenced by foreign cultures (Witzel 2003, Thapar 2002, Bellah 2011) especially Hellenistic and Persian warrior clans who settled as ruling upper classes. There were for instance invasions of Greco-Bactrians (256 BC-125BC) (Wikipedia link) and Indo-Greek kingdoms (180 BC-AD10) (Wikipedia link) – descendants of the warrior clans Alexander left behind him. They ruled over rich urbanised areas. The kingdoms – about 40 of them – were the outposts of Hellenistic civilisations and had a significant impact on Indian culture, art, and state organisation. Buddhism made major inroads in these kingdoms and many rulers converted. Then there were various steppe nomads from Iran and Central Asia like the Indo-Scythians (often called Sakas (Wikipedia link)) sweeping over Northern India building up dynasties. They also took up Buddhism. The neighbouring Persian Parthian Empire (Wikipedia link) also ruled in period. They were influenced by Greek culture but also left a Persian cultural impact in India.
Furthermore the whole Indian subcontinent was around this time involved in intensive trade and contact with China (the Silk Road passed through North West India) and the Roman Empire. Around 100 AD it was discovered how ships could cross the Indian Ocean by following seasonal monsoon winds; this led to an expansion of trade and cultural exchange between Rome and Indian kingdoms -the Kusanas especially (50-250AD) (Wikipedia link) relied on trade (Kulke & Rothermund 2006). This 500-year period is sometimes called
Oxidative stress causing damage to striatal tissues has been implicated in Salamba Sirsasana Yoga Pose the pathogenesis of psychotropic medication side effects, including tremor, stiffness, and akathisia see Sidebar Salamba Sirsasana Yoga Pose 2.1. A study of oxidative stress evaluated two groups of rats. One group of animals was treated with haloperidol Haldol 1.5 mg/kg/day for 21 days, while the other group was not. Haloperidol caused significant elevations of the levels of striatal superoxide free radicals and lipid peroxidation free radical damage to membranes. N-acetylcysteine NAC was given to both groups of animals for 21 days in three doses, 50 mg/day, 500 mg/day, and 1,500 mg/day. In the animals not pretreated with haloperidol, 50 mg/day and 500 mg/day NAC reduced oxidative stress markers.
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