Cognitive enhancement by positive allosteric modulators such as aniracetam and CX614 Practice Enlightenment Meditation pyrrolidino-1,3-oxazino-benzo-1, 4-dioxan-10 Practice Enlightenment Meditation -one may be attributed to slowing the deactivation of AMPARs Ling & Benardo, 2005. Nootropics provide neuroprotection. AMPARs protect neurons through release of BDNF, activation of the BDNF receptor TrkB-tyrosine phosphorylation, and via the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway that increases BDNF expression Wu, Zhu, Jiang, Okagaki, Mearow et al.
Centrophenoxine Meclofenoxate, Lucidril and BCE-001 Centrophenoxine CPH is an ester of dimethyl-aminoethanol DMAE, a component in choline synthesis, and p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid PCPA, a synthetic form of a plant growth hormone Nandy, 1978.
Elevation of brain acetylcholine ACh was thought to be the basis for the therapeutic effects of CPH in cerebral atrophy, dementia, and traumatic brain injury.
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Although DMAE increases free choline, only a fraction of this is needed for Ach synthesis. The membrane hypothesis of aging proposes that oxygen free radicals, particularly rapidly acting OH-radicals, inflict the highest rate of damage to cell membranes.
CPH delivers DMAE rapidly to the brain, where it is incorporated into nerve cell membranes as phosphatidyl-DMAE.