Cognitive enhancement by positive allosteric modulators such as aniracetam and CX614 Practice Enlightenment Meditation pyrrolidino-1,3-oxazino-benzo-1,4-dioxan-10 Practice Enlightenment Meditation -one may be attributed to slowing the deactivation of AMPARs Ling & Benardo, 2005. Nootropics provide neuroprotection. AMPARs protect neurons through release of BDNF, activation of the BDNF receptor TrkB-tyrosine phosphorylation, and via the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway that increases BDNF expression Wu, Zhu, Jiang, Okagaki, Mearow et al.
Centrophenoxine Meclofenoxate, Lucidril and BCE-001 Centrophenoxine CPH is an ester of dimethyl-aminoethanol DMAE, a component in choline synthesis, and p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid PCPA, a synthetic form of a plant growth hormone Nandy, 1978. Elevation of brain acetylcholine ACh was thought to be the basis for the therapeutic effects of CPH in cerebral atrophy, dementia, and traumatic brain injury. Although DMAE increases free choline, only a fraction of this is needed for Ach synthesis. The membrane hypothesis of aging proposes that oxygen free radicals, particularly rapidly acting OH-radicals, inflict the highest rate of damage to cell membranes. CPH delivers DMAE rapidly to the brain, where it is incorporated into nerve cell membranes as phosphatidyl-DMAE.
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