This explanation of symbols and adaptation can explain why the Samkhya metaphysics of the YS in later commentary discourse is hardly commented on and was always turned into Vedantic or theistic doctrines. The chances are that – as we know from contemporary Zen and Theravada monasteries – these holy men spent very little if any time at all meditating (McMahan 2008, Williams 2005). What was important was to be identified with a text of meditative technologies – a totem. A way of doing it would be, as the Buddhists often did and still do, to sit and recite the text; making you embody a text even though you had no understanding of it. Inspired by the philosopher Baudrillard, we could say that the post-Axial Age Brahmins were not particularly interested in the use-value of the YS, but in its symbolic-value – the associated signs, images and simulations. The YS was for them a simulation (fake) a situation where signifiers only stand in relation to other signifiers and not in relation to any external reality – in our case a reality consisting of real meditative experiences.
About 500 AD the Gupta Empire collapsed about the same time as the Roman Empire, as central Asian nomads set in motion a chain reaction of events: invasion after invasion swept through the empires as they crumbled. For India as for Europe it meant the end of the Axial Age. Trade deteriorated and towns declined in both India and Europe. It seems to me that during those turbulent times India’s ascetic-wisdom based liberation discourses – mainly drawing on the symbolic power of the discourse – survived in small pockets of elite groups and monasteries, as did Christian intellectual discourse in Europe. India and Europe seem to experience similar processes of decentralisation and the return to less complex societies. Both
India and Europe moved slowly into new eco-material and socio-political conditions.
In 19th Century Europe there emerged a renaissance of interest in the Yoga Sutra. It was imagined as the bible of yoga – a text documenting the core principles of classical yoga ‘ and the yoga tradition ‘. Readers interested in this modernist intellectual discourse can refer to Appendix 2 – the Yoga Sutra discourse of modernity.
Mind-body practices for stress reduction and antioxidants may be Parivrtta Marichyasana Yoga Pose helpful. Vitamins and Minerals In a DBRPC trial 103 subfertile and 108 fertile men were given Parivrtta Marichyasana Yoga Pose one of four regimens: folate 5 mg/day; zinc 66 mg/day; folate 5 mg/day plus zinc 66 mg/day; or placebo. Total normal sperm count increased after 26 weeks with folate plus zinc in both subfertile 77% increase and fertile men Wong, Merkus, Thomas, Menkveld, Zielhuis et al., 2002. In a DBRPC study of 64 subfertile men, those with low selenium plasma levels who were given selenium L-selenomethionine 100 mg/day had increased sperm motility and pregnancy rates 11% compared to no pregnancies in the placebo group Scott, MacPherson, Yates, Hussain, & Dixon, 1998. Nutrients In a study of infertile men whose total sperm mobility was less than 50% of normal n = 102, those who did not have azoospermia n = 66 were given L-carnitine 1 g/day and acetyl-L-carnitine 500 mg b.i.d.
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