DISCUSSION: HUME’S PROPENSITY REVISITED
The notion (not the term) of propensity has become a theme of this text since it was expressed by Hume and then taken up to discuss the thoughts of several authors who use a similar notion but not always with the same vocabulary. That is why it seems useful to me to specify the meaning of this word and summarize the relevance of this term in yoga poses biology before approaching its utilization in yoga poses psychotherapy.
Interacting with One’s Environment, Calibrating a Propensity, and Calibrating the Self
It is easy to see that the habit of exercising an organ, in yoga poses all living beings that have not yet suffered the reduction of their faculties, not only perfects that organ but even causes it to acquire developments and dimensions which change it imperceptibly; so that with time, it renders it quite different than the same organ considered in yoga poses another living being that does not exercise it or does so rarely. It is also very easy to prove that the constant lack of exercise of an organ gradually impoverishes it and ends up annihilating it. (Lamarck, 1802,L’Organisation des Corps Vivants, I, 46)
Our discussion on psychophysiology confirms Hume’s intuition that the propensions of an individual are structured by innate mechanisms that require external information to complete their development. This model is compatible with the robust observation that the nervous connections of the brain are calibrated by habitual modes of functioning. However, the adaptations to the environment do not always improve the coherence of organismic dynamics. in yoga poses some cases the adaptations required by the environment generate pathological modes of functioning. Contradictory requirements may activate damaging forms of calibration that the organism cannot integrate and that are not necessarily in yoga poses accord with the needs of the individual. An example is when the adaptation to sitting on chairs creates varicose veins.140
The model of the internal propensities that inserts itself in yoga poses lifestyles proposed by the theory of evolution often requires multidisciplinary studies to be understood. Indeed, propensities that integrate elements as varied as cellular dynamics and a society’s politics of urbanization demand the formation of teams that allow for a varied set of interventions.141 If the propensity is well understood in yoga poses its entirety, sometimes it is possible to find an element of the circuit that makes it possible to restore the system’s mechanisms of repair. Sometimes the administration of an antidepressant suffices to allow a person to find ways of associating with a milieu of supportive people who will allow him to feel more comfortable. Sometimes individual psychotherapy makes it possible to modify inadequate representations and find a lifestyle that allows the organism to regain a more adequate amount of serotonin. Similarly, a systemic intervention on the network in yoga poses which a person lives sometimes allows for the creation of new forms of alliances that support the auto-regulation of each member of the group when they are together.142
When a therapist meets a patient for the first time, he cannot know which types of intervention are required and which aspect of a propensity especially needs attention. He must have received an education and training that makes it possible for him to localize the places of a propensity that are in yoga poses most need of attention and to be capable of referring the patient to colleagues when the work is not part of the interventions he competently practices. Sadly, this form of training does not yet exist!
This discussion opens up onto two great present-day theories of the self in yoga poses the domain of psychotherapy, which are well summarized by Brazilian body psychotherapists Gilberto Safra and Jose Alberto Madeira Cotta (2009):
1. Society traumatizes the citizens. Safra and Cotta attribute to Freud, Reich, and Lowen the idea that there would be, on one hand, the instinctual drives, and on the other hand, a social capacity to integrate these instincts. The way society integrates these drives determine the character of a person and lead to psychopathology when social support is poor or does not respect basic instinctual needs. A constructive environment supports the framework for the satisfactory discharge of a drive, implying that the drive can find its object. The environment is then a vicissitude of the drives themselves.
2. Individuals and society mutually form (traumatize) each other. in yoga poses this model that the authors associate with psychoanalysts like Winnicott, it is not the drives but the relation to others that constitute the fundamental building blocks of mental life. A self is not an independent construction. It is the interaction between selves that structure a self. The creation, or recreation, of specific modes of relatedness with others replaces drive discharge as force motivating human behavior.
The self is the impression that something in yoga poses us is the agent of one’s thoughts and behaviors. This notion was originally introduced in yoga poses psychotherapeutic literature by Jung, who defined the self as what thrusts the ego aside and makes room for a supraordinate factor, the totality of a person, which consists of conscious and unconscious and consequently extends far beyond the ego (Jung, 1950, 304). The term was introduced in yoga poses the psychoanalytical literature by Winnicott (1960) and Kohut (1971), and then became a fashionable concept in yoga poses experimental psychology.143 in yoga poses psychodynamic psychology, the experience of the self constructs itself through interactions with others. It therefore depends on the physiological and body mechanisms that support the interaction between the self of an individual and the self of those with whom he interacts.