The surfacing of the supra-regional state and monotheism.
The struggle to become and maintain an Empire.
Historically we now move into the zenith of India's Axial Age civilisation era. After Alexander the Great's push towards the Indus River in 327-325 BC, he left his generals to rule the conquered areas. They built up independent kingdoms, which had a major influence on Northern India. Greek historical sources hold – but they often exaggerate – that by this time there was already an impressive Northern Indian Empire facing them – the Nandas (Wikipedia link). The Nandas could mount an army of 200, 000 foot soldiers, 3,000 elephants, 2,000 war chariots and 20, 000 cavalry. To equip, feed and raise an army of this size – even if exaggerated – assumes a large society with hefty material surplus and advanced organisational skills. We are clearly not dealing with the small local kingdoms of the Vedic period. The following Maurya Empire (320-200 BC) (Wikipedia link)- where this chapter begins -managed to disband tribalistic and confederative institutions and build a centralised state structure. Hence they were able to break out of the region of Northern India and stretch their Empire over most of the sub-continent. For the first time India witnessed a centralised Empire reaching beyond the boundaries of a geographical region and stretching into other distinct and remote geographical regions. Until then Northern Indian states had been contained by natural boundaries like mountains, rivers, deserts, jungles etc. According to the German historians Kulke & Rothermund A History of India (2006).
After the Maurya Empire collapsed (185 BCE) Northern India and India as a whole returned to its former regional restricted political map. Politically it became a continuous situation of dynasties struggling to solve inherent structural limitations. Because of the way the subsequent kingdoms and dynasties organised themselves, they were limited in size only to regional based medium sized state forms. There were physical limits to how large were the areas they could control. Further due to inbuilt de-centrifugal institutional structures – like tribalism and local power structures – they tended to disintegrate after short periods (Kulke & Rothermund 2006, Fukuyama 2011). This resulted in permanent rivalry: wars of expansion, civil wars, divisions, mergers etc. Northern and Southern/Central India saw fluctuations of large regional dynasties like Sunga (185-73 BC), Satavahana (50 BC-200 AD) and Kuninda (ca. 100-200 AD). It was initially with the Gupta Empire (300-600 AD) (Wikipedia link) -i. E. 500 years after the Maurya Empire – that a second Pan-Indian Empire arose. This chapter covers the period stretching from the beginning of Maurya to the end of the Gupta Empire including the era between the Empires. With the exit of the Gupta Empire, India's Axial Age civilisation had come to an end parallel with the contemporary collapse of another Axial Age civilisation: the Roman Empire.
Officinalis and V. Officinalis may reduce anxiety under stress. Half Moon Yoga PoseIn a large uncontrolled multicenter study, a combination valerian-lemon balm product Euvegal forte was Half Moon Yoga Posetested in 918 children under the age of 12 years with restlessness and dyssomnia Muller & Klement, 2006. Substantial improvement occurred in 80. 9% of the children with dyssomnia and 70. 4% of those with restlessness. Controlled trials would be useful in assessing the safety and efficacy of herbs for children. The tolerability of Euvegal forte was evaluated as good or very good by 96.