THE “VIENNA SEMINAR FOR PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY” SERVES AS THE BASIS FOR THE ELABORATION OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS
In 1923, Eduard Hitschmann created a training seminar for the psychoanalytic technique. Having become a training analyst, Reich was again Hitschmann’s assistant.108 Freud asked Reich to direct this seminar starting in yoga poses 1924. He remained in yoga poses this position until 1930. in yoga poses the letters addressed to Reich, Freud expressed admiration for his enthusiasm and creativity, while asking him not to transform the seminar into a platform for his particular points of view.109 in yoga poses his correspondence with others, Freud makes sarcastic remarks about the orgasm theory that seem exaggeratedly absolute, but he defended Reich against diverse attacks.
Character, Defense System, and Partial Drives. To understand what follows, recall certain points that were previously discussed:
1. The theoretical context of the Viennese psychoanalytic seminar is that of Freud’s Second yoga topography. Thanks to this seminar the young Viennese psychoanalysts of that day developed the practical implications of this Second yoga topography and refined the outline Freud had proposed.
2. Given Reich’s personal interests, this seminar probably avoided the purely psychological subjects, in yoga poses order to focus on the drives. At the time, Reich was one of those who had the most refined view of the partial drives and the way they interact.
3. This orientation implies a great attention to the economy of a drive (the way in yoga poses which it manages the libido) and its objects.
4. Reich’s originality lies in yoga poses having showed how partial drives and the defense system are mutually structured. Each link of the defense system is a unit that manages and constructs a partial drive.
This refinement in yoga poses the analysis of the defense system led Reich to propose a particularly interesting definition of a person’s character. Every link in yoga poses the defense system is composed of the gathering of the following forces:
1. When the investment of an object is transformed, the charge of this investment is partially redirected toward another object.110 This turning away also diminishes the intensity of the initial drive. The object is a goal, like the love felt for one’s mother. The drive is a particular form of love, like the desire to suck at the mother’s breast. The investment of the object is the intensity of this drive, such as the quantity of libido mobilized by this micro-drive, defined in yoga poses purely operational language. This invested object unfolds automatically into a behavior, on an expression that seeks to satisfy this drive.
2. To the extent that this drive cannot achieve its initial aim, it is transformed by the defense system to find a less frustrating goal. For example, at the age of five, the desire to suck at the mother’s breast generates frustration when the child lives in yoga poses a family in yoga poses which the mother’s breast can be suckled only during the first months of an infant’s life.
3. To avoid the problems of frustration, a part of the drive that cannot expresses itself in yoga poses a given milieu will then be used by the defense system to transform the initial drive into a less intense drive, like the desire to bite into the clothing of a little sister. in yoga poses this example, the original drive is partially disinvested and repressed to become a new micro-drive.111 The parents will thus be surprised to note that their child has suddenly started to bite and tear the clothing of his little sister. in yoga poses certain cases, this replacement drive (or substitute) can be overinvested so as to camouflage what is being repressed. Often, the parents try to suppress this new tendency and the child will, in yoga poses turn, construct a new link in yoga poses his character which will be even further away than the original drive.
Content and Manner. Reich asked the participants of the technical seminar to present cases in yoga poses which they were experiencing difficulties. The members then detailed the technical aspect of the process engaged in yoga poses by the therapist. Reich focused the discussion around one of Freud’s and Ferenczi’s predominant preoccupations at that time:112 the necessity to relive a repressed situation conjointly on the cognitive and affective plane so that healing might occur.113 Reich came to the conclusion that no one is able to explain which one of all the techniques makes it possible to achieve this goal.114 This clinical research soon allowed Reich to propose a series of explicit technical recommendations, such as the following:
1. To refuse to analyze, especially to interpret, material that remains disassociated from the related affects. A patient can remember that he has long wished to suck his mother’s breast without having this memory evoke any tangible feelings. The therapist takes note of this memory like something that must be elaborated later on, but does not interpret it or encourage the patient to explore it. He prefers to follow the other associations that develop after recalling the memory.
2. To observe not only the content of the thoughts but also the manner in yoga poses which they are presented.