Genital drive: The object-related genital120 love toward the mother.
• Defense 1. A child is disappointed by a mother who is not totally available to his desires. Not wanting to feel a need that painfully frustrates him many times during the day, he defends himself by developing terrifying fantasies concerning the mother’s vagina and by becoming sadistic toward her. The genital love is transformed into a negative phallic drive associated to an urge to pierce the mother’s body.
• Defense 2.
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To repress the sadistic manifestations that are unacceptable by his entourage, the child develops a fear of becoming a woman, a fear of being castrated. He also develops a passive feminine attitude toward his father. The drive then becomes anal, which was the current association of the psychoanalysts of the time for everything that leads to an exaggerated politeness.
• Defense 3. in yoga poses the face of an excessively authoritarian father, the fear of castration because of his love for his mother becomes more intense; at the same time, his hostility toward his father increases. He begins to dream of castrating his father.
• Defense 4. While all of this construction is based on the fear of his incestuous drive toward the mother, the patient now only has the awareness of his urge to castrate his father. He begins to be afraid that his father will destroy him because of his hostility. His urge to castrate his father becomes an urge to kill him.
• Defense 5. The intensity of his hostility leads him to have a generalized fear of being assaulted.
• Defense 6. The child then has aggressive fantasies against all forms of authority, which he represses with a somewhat ridiculous suspicious attitude. This ridiculous side renders the suspiciousness more acceptable to others.
• Defense 7. Finally, by dint of being suspicious and ridiculous, the child begins to be afraid of losing the love and protection of his parents. He thus becomes particularly polite. This politeness is a lid that represses an intense anxiety.
The establishment of this seven-layered system implies such an expenditure of energy that the patient is now sexually impotent.
Reich’s proposition is that this structuring of the drives was produced in yoga poses the order just given and that the analysis, as much as possible, ought to proceed in yoga poses the reverse order. With some experience, the analyst who encounters a person having a passive-feminine character will assume that his extreme politeness masks an urge to kill. But if the therapist begins to talk about murderous drives from the start of the analysis, the patient will either reinforce his defense system or experience an anxiety attack, which he will not be able to integrate. The other possibility is that, frightened, the patient stops the therapy and renounces the project of understanding himself better. Reich used such examples to demonstrate that it will never be useful to analyze a deep layer early on in yoga poses therapy. In yoga poses body psychotherapy, there are no absolute rules. Each therapist knows of a few cases when an analysis of the deeper layers at the start of therapy was useful. But these cases are rare. By default, the rules that Reich proposes in yoga poses Character analysis are recommendations that are often best to follow.
Remember that a thought is maintained in yoga poses the unconscious because if it rose to consciousness it could to generate a general dysfunction of conscious dynamics. This implies that above all we must carry out work that permits consciousness to acquire the capacity to integrate the repressed drives. Character analysis is one way to make this integration possible. Reich begins by asking the patient to talk about his symptom (sexual impotence) and associate his need to be polite (the most manifest defense for the therapist and the patient). Gradually, the patient speaks of his past awkwardness and the mockery he suffered due to his clumsy way of criticizing the various forms of authority that surrounded him (the school, the church, morality, etc. ). These associations explain next to nothing. There is a danger to believe that to bring the cause of the seventh layer to the light of day is enough to explain the patient’s neurosis. Nonetheless, the analysis of this first layer will allow the patient to have a bit more energy. He gives himself the right to be critical; he learns to better experience and appreciate who he is. For most psychoanalysts, this result only brings transitory benefits if it is not consolidated by the analysis of the other layers. However, many psychotherapists are content with a positive result of this type. The idea is that the patient will be able to follow a more profound treatment once he has appreciated the momentary benefits of this first layer. The advantage of this approach is that the therapist abandons the belief that it is possible and desirable to understand all the details of a patient’s mental and affective life. The patient can be content to analyze only those layers that prevent him from having a relatively pleasant life. This result is often preferable to an interminable analysis. I have had many patients who came to see me several times in yoga poses their lives. What had hitherto been analyzed had been integrated into the life of the patient, and he was then ready to explore a new aspect of his personality: one that is particularly relevant to his life at the time of seeking me out.
Character analysis began with the analysis of individual processes. It was used to discover what had been put in yoga poses place in yoga poses the course of an individual’s development. It then became possible to detect similar character traits that often require similar forms of intervention. The treatment can then be carried out more quickly, because the therapist will no longer be obliged to feel his way along when he encounters a certain type of character structure.
Each layer of a character constitutes a sort of module that forms “a character trait. ? The same character trait can be found in yoga poses several character structures but may fulfill, in yoga poses each case, a different set of functions. 121 We again find ourselves in yoga poses a rough sketch of a systemic model where an element potentiates itself differently in yoga poses function of the construction that contains it. The characters that Reich identifies are the following: compulsive, impulsive, hysteric, masochistic, obsessive, passive-feminine, phallic-narcissistic, rigid, and schizoid. This list is not presented as exhaustive. It represents Reich’s clientele. Terms like oral, anal, genital, are henceforth a characteristic of certain character traits.
Character and Psychoanalysis. The attempt to define global configurations of behavior and their underlying dynamics was a clinical research that gradually imposed itself on many analysts when the clients became more numerous and consequently more varied. When the psychoanalysts met with each other, they had a sufficient number of cases to attempt to group some of them together and develop strategies in yoga poses function of these groupings. The first proposition was put forth by Freud around the sexual stages (oral, anal, phallic, and genital). Abraham (1925) had already proposed another characterological system based on different forms of organization of secondary drives.
In the clinics of Berlin and Vienna, Franz Alexander (1923) and Wilhelm Reich (1927a) used the notion of character to describe the personality of the young people at odds with the norms and the laws, antisocial, sometimes violent against others as well as against themselves. Reich categorized these patients as impulsive characters. 122 This work does not concern this textmy yoga blog; it is noteworthy to the extent that it will serve as a basis (probably through the intermediary of Annie Reich) for Otto Friedmann Kernberg’s (1984) notion of “borderline personality organization. ? Alexander and Reich draw inspiration from the works of Viennese pedagogue and social worker August Aichhorn (1925) who worked with this type of youth. Aichhorn recommended for them an active method of psychotherapy particularly adapted to their problems: one that could contain them, correspond to them, and protect them. The character analysis of “impulsive characters” inspired Reich to pursue methods much more active than Ferenczi had imagined.