The Power of the Mind on the Body
The body, according to Freud, combines the physiological and bodily dimensions of the organism, such as I have described them in yoga poses the System of the Dimensions of the Organism The organism is still, for him, a coordination between mind and body. He claims that psychoanalysis is a mental treatment that takes its origin in yoga poses the soul, begins by healing the soul, but can then also influence physiology.73
In Freud’s time, the soul/matter polarity was becoming increasingly difficult to defend. Scientists were all looking for a new theory concerning the organismic dimensions that could fit the data. Freud’s psyche elegantly fit into the spirit of the time as the mind is simultaneously integrated into the regulators of the organism but remains distinct from the other dimensions (body, behavior, physiology, etc.) with which it constantly interacts in yoga poses an intimate way. His study of hysteria permits him to detail this view. By deciding to center his attention on the analysis of the content of what is being said, Freud focuses his attention on the mind more that on what he calls the body. Like all choices, it implies a gain and a loss. Some analysts go so far as to justify this choice by minimizing bodywork, like La Fontaine’s fable on the fox who finds appetizing grapes too sour because he cannot jump high enough to eat them Others maintained the course fixed by Freud. The organism is constantly part of their peripheral vision. This was the case of Otto Fenichel, who reaffirmed in yoga poses 1945 that Mental phenomena occur only in yoga poses living organisms (Fenichel, 1945a, Introduction, 5).
Psychopathology, according to Freud, is certainly a dysfunction of the psyche, caused by a context to which an individual’s mind is incapable of accommodating itself other that in yoga poses creating chronic repression in yoga poses the unconscious. If a certain dose of chronic unconscious is inevitable, the dose found in yoga poses Freud’s patients is too important to allow the psyche to adequately accomplish its function as an organismic regulator. Now the repressed has an impact not only on the mind but also on the organism; it can, for example, unleash functional problems of physiological and sexual behavior.74
Although the organism was part of Breuer’s and Freud’s thinking, they thought that a trauma, due to one or many events of sexual abuse, could be treated with psychotherapy, that is, by working only on mental dynamics (hypnosis, memory, understanding, regression, etc.). in yoga poses short, the idea is that a woman’s body suffers just momentarily from being raped, because the physical wounds heal, whereas the wounds of the soul are often lasting. This analysis rests on some experience of hypnosis in yoga poses which the unconscious seems to have a total control of the body mechanics, like the soul on the body in yoga poses healing movements:
If we put a person into deep hypnosis and suggest the idea to him that he sees nothing with one of his eyes, he will in yoga poses fact behave as though he has become blind with one of his eyes, like a hysteric who has developed a visual disturbance spontaneously. … in yoga poses a hysteric the idea of being blind arises, not from the prompting of a hypnotist, but spontaneously by autosuggestion, as people say; and in yoga poses both cases this idea is so powerful that it turns into reality, exactly like a suggested hallucination, paralysis, etc. (Freud, 1910a, 107)
The hysterical revulsions are therefore nothing else but phantasies translated into the motor sphere, projected on to mobility and portrayed in yoga poses pantomime (Freud, 1909a, A, 97).75 The observation that a mental suggestion can have an enormous power over the body is an indisputable fact, but there are many ways to understand it. in yoga poses the mind of many psychoanalysts, a mental representation can have a direct impact on the functioning of the organs. There would then be a direct parallelism Freud knew enough to sense that this was not a direction to take. We must, in yoga poses effect, explain the relative efficacy of hypnosis because it is more effective (that is, more powerful, longer lasting, etc.) with some people than with others. Hypnosis is effective when a series of mechanisms (mental, organismic, and bodily) are able to align themselves around a representation. As soon as a representation becomes what activates a schema, it acquires a stunning power. I have the impression that these sudden cures can inscribe themselves in yoga poses the organism if there is already an organismic schema that uses this representation as a stimulus of reference, as in yoga poses the case of the conditioned reflexes described by Pavlov (1927). This alignment around a representation can sometimes happen all of a sudden, as hypnotists demonstrate;76 or by a gradual construction as shown by the analysis of the anxiety neuroses that seems to create a mechanism that is close to conditioned reflexes already in yoga poses place.
For a number of body psychotherapists, trauma often inscribes itself into the organism, in yoga poses the functioning of the nervous system, in yoga poses muscular tension, in yoga poses the tissues that no longer respond as they should. in yoga poses these cases, the wounding of the soul does not explain all of the suffering that builds up in an abused organism.78 Since Reich, it is admitted that the orgasm is an organismic conduct, not only a fantasy. The hysterical convulsion, when it resembles a stimulation of the sexual act, certainly would not be the play of an actor that activates the body. A convulsion activates psychophysiological remnants of the orgasm reflex that revives past pains.79 This vision is close to Descartes’s living body, capable of being wounded as profoundly by a physical intrusion (rape, violence) as by what is going on at the level of the representations. I do not believe that the psychoanalysts of today, like Francois Sironi (1999), who has helped people who have been tortured, could entertain a position like the one that Freud held early on. Since the work done on stress and oxytocin, we know that the body reacts as much as the thoughts do to trauma and that healing can rarely be only mental. The disorganizations induced by trauma in yoga poses the innate reactions of the organism are one of the reasons that render the treatment of serious trauma so difficult and only rarely completely effective. This type of argument justifies the inclusion of interventions on body dynamics in yoga poses a therapeutic treatment plan for traumatized persons.80