It seems that around 1600 AD the Sufis branched out into different rural movements of fakirs and dervishes (Iranian-Persian notions for poverty and mendicants). These groups also learned from the Nath jogis and were even trained by them. The result of this was that a (Muslim) fakir’ and a (Hindu) jogi’ became synonymous for both the Indian population and the later arriving Europeans. From contemporary Muslim and European accounts we start to hear about extreme forms of self-mutilation, which prior sources to my knowledge had never observed. The jogis and fakirs did conjuring stunts such as walking on hot coals, laying on a bed of nails, eating fire, swallowing iron chains, sticking their hands in boiling ‘oil’, piercing their faces with long needles, putting large hooks through the flesh of their backs attached to heavy objects, which they pulled. These extreme forms are for instance witnessed by the French traveller Jean de Thevenot around 1666:
Their penance consist in forbearing to eat for many day, to keep constantly standing upon a Stone for several weeks, or several months; to hold their arms a cross behind their head, as long as they live, or to bury themselves in Pits for a certain space of time.
Biloba 120 mg plus Panax ginseng 200 mg showed no significant Catuspadapitham Yoga Pose effects on mood, menopausal symptoms, attention, or memory compared to those on placebo Hartley Catuspadapitham Yoga Pose , Elsabagh, & File, 2004. For patients whose DHEA or DHEA-sulfate levels are low normal or below normal for age particularly menopausal women, the authors have found that treatment with 7-keto DHEA 25-75 mg/day may enhance mood, cognitive function, memory, and sexual function see sections on DHEA in Chapters 2 and 4. A starting dose of 25 mg a.m. and a maintenance dose of 50 mg a. Are usually sufficient. Side effects are usually minimal and include hirsutism, acne, anxiety, and agitation. Unlike DHEA, 7-keto DHEA does not convert to estrogen or testosterone and therefore does not cause hirsutism or acne.