Most studies show no estrogenic effect, no binding to estrogen Ardha Padmasana Yoga Pose receptors in vitro. In contrast to ERT, black cohosh has no significant side effects. Ardha Padmasana Yoga Pose No toxicity occurred in rats given 90 times the human dose for six months. In breast cancer cell cultures, black cohosh did not induce proliferation Freudenstein & Bodinet, 1999, whereas it inhibited DNA synthesis and augmented the antiproliferative activity of tamoxifen in vitro Fackleman, 1998; Foster, 1999; Lieberman, 1998.
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There is no evidence of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity.
Although stimulation of some uterine growth in ovariectomized rats had been reported, a multinational study of 400 postmenopausal women given 40 mg/day Cimicifuga racemosa BNO 1055 black cohosh for 52 weeks found no cases of endometrial hyperplasia Raus, Brucker, Gorkow, & Wuttke, 2006. Overall the number and intensity of hot flashes was markedly reduced and the herb was well tolerated.
Several controlled studies, including one DBPC study, showed efficacy equivalent to ERT Foster, 1999; Lieberman, 1998.