Symptoms include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, mood swings, Ananda Balasana Yoga Pose depression, insomnia, fatigue, forgetfulness, and poor concentration Mayo, J. L., Ananda Balasana Yoga Pose 1997. The 1990 Nurses Health Study 121,700 women followed for 10 years found a 40% greater risk of breast cancer in women taking HRT versus placebo. Estrogen replacement therapy ERT also elevates the risk of uterine cancer. Adding progesterone to ERT reduces but does not eliminate the heightened risk of uterine cancer Beresford, Weiss, Voigt, & McKnight, 1997; Colditz, Stampfer, Willett, Hennekens, Rosner et al., 1990; Colditz, Hankinson, Hunter, Willett, Manson et al., 1995.
Proto-yoga discourse – where karma was also central – was to a large extent Buddhist and Jain discourse. Hence proto-yoga was informed by the Axial Age episteme of universalism, rationalism and ethics. However, as this yoga entered the Upanishad genre around the time of Buddha, the ethical aspect especially was left at the door. The ethical aspect of course had to be silenced in these texts, as it challenged the two hegemonic castes. How could their powerful position, their repression of lower castes, their accumulated symbolic capital be united with demands of universalism and ethical living? The ethical aspects could especially create problems for the Kshatriyas as karma for instance saw violence – central to a warrior life – as having very negative karmic effects.
In the middle of this period where the Upanishads surfaced, the huge epic Mahabharata began its centuries long period of gestation. Here yoga was widely discussed in relation to the ruling aristocratic warrior classes – the Kshatriyas. From the Mahabharata we get the clear impression that the sign systems accompanying yoga – like karma, samsara, meditation, moksha, the immovable self – were quite well-known among the ruling elites. Later on we shall see how this grand Epic further incorporated yoga and karma into the Brahmins’ and Kshatriyas’ ideology and hegemonic dominance.